Brandeis GPS Blog

Insights on online learning, tips for finding balance, and news and updates from Brandeis GPS

Category: Industry Insights (page 1 of 15)

Opportunities for Clinicians in Search of Change

Man stands in front of stone wall and smiles into camera

Jon Azzariti, Program Chair of Health Informatics MS

Jon Azzariti was a recent guest of our Lunch and Learn series, where he gave a talk, “Journey Beyond the Bedside – Exciting Opportunities for Clinicians.” A nurse by trade, Azzariti is the program chair of the Master of Science in Health Informatics at Brandeis GPS, and a Senior Patient Safety Manager at athenahealth.

Azzariti first got involved in Health Informatics when he joined a committee for informatics during his time at Massachusetts General Hospital, where he later began working part of the time as an informatics analyst. 

During his talk, Azzariti explained that clinicians are leaving the bedside for a variety of reasons. One of these reasons is burnout, due to COVID, yes, but also the fact that healthcare is a physically and emotionally demanding profession. This was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Azzariti added, “I’m a firm believer that burnout is often due to institutional-systemic failures, not personal failures. Folks are asked to do more today with fewer resources.”

He went on to explain that there are other opportunities that exist for folks in these professions if they are looking for a change of pace. This is a topic Azzariti is passionate about. “I’m here to say – there are so many jobs outside of bedside care where you can put your clinical mindset to work and still make a difference.” 

illustrated image of doctor with the title "Near and long-term opportunities" at the top, and subtitles "user experience & design, patient safety, health analytics, health informatics, quality, sales & clinical consulting" surrounding the doctor

These opportunities allow professionals to use their experience and be innovative. Among these opportunities are careers in Health Informatics, Health Analytics, and User Experience and Design. Azzariti believes that “All three of these areas can be hard to recruit for and clinicians can sometimes have a considerable advantage.”

He also encourages people to think about their skillset and desired work environment. “You can also find the right combination for you,” he notes. “For instance, I currently work in patient safety, but it’s really an interesting cross section between patient safety and informatics.

For folks looking to change their career who want to hone their skills, Azzariti says that “Brandeis can help you get to where you want to go.”

He specifically highlights our master’s program in User-Centered Design, along with our master’s certificate in Healthcare Analytics.

Azzariti’s final advice was to make a change if you are feeling burnt out. “If you work in healthcare and are needing a change, there are other options that exist.”


Attend an info session this fall to learn more about the degrees that Brandeis GPS offers, or join us for an upcoming Lunch and Learn featuring guest speakers from various industries starting in January. 

Brandeis GPS Sponsors UXPA Boston Annual Conference

Three people stand behind a table with tall Brandeis University signs on either side

From left to right: Director of Admissions Christie Barone, Brandeis GPS Alumni Craig Cailler, and Assistant Director of Partnership Engagement Michaela Henry

Last week, Brandeis GPS sponsored UXPA Boston’s annual conference. The event was a day-long, in person conference featuring networking opportunities, professional development sessions, and several panels and keynote speakers about different topics in the industry.

Our own User-Centered Design (UCD) faculty and board members were integral to the success of the day. UCD faculty member Bob Thomas is President of UXPA Boston. He kicked off the day with a welcome address, and later hosted a group mentoring session. The chair of the UCD program, Eva Kaniasty, was featured on the panel “Design of Design Education,” along with program board members Chris Hass and Lou Susi. 

Four people sit in a row of chairs on a stage, one speaking into a microphone

“Design of Design Education” Panel at UXPA Boston | From left to right: Jason Reynolds, Amy Heymans, Eva Kaniasty, and Chris Hass

Chris Hass is on the board of UXPA Boston as well.

Lou Cimaglia, a Brandeis GPS Lunch and Learn speaker, also gave a talk titled “Content Isn’t A Word: A Team Approach to UX Writing.” His Lunch and Learn – register here! – will be this Thursday, October 20 at 12pm.


For more information on the User-Centered Design program or any other GPS programs, visit our website.

Of reasonable security and other mythical creatures

The blue light from the screen of a half-open laptop lights up the keyboard

Written by: Alain Marcuse, Information Security Leadership Faculty

Imagine you are responsible for cybersecurity at your company. Your mission is to support the business, but you’re among the 90% of security leaders who believe they are falling short in addressing cyber risk, according to the 2021 Security Priorities study by Foundry. You are well aware that threats continue to evolve faster than your budget and/or resources; according to the same study, 54% of CISOs expect no increase at all in their budget next year. 

Against this backdrop, cybersecurity threats are certainly not standing still. According to PwC’s 2022 Global Digital Trust Insights report, more than 50% of organizations expect a surge in reportable incidents, over the 2021 rate. In short, the threat landscape continues to grow more rapidly than the resources available to you. 

But the challenge is not only a “simple” matter of balancing resources against threats. Cybersecurity is an increasingly regulated field, governed by sectoral laws such as HIPAA or industry standards such as PCI DSS, state laws such as in Massachusetts or New York, and even extra-territorial laws such as the European Union’s GDPR. Insurance companies are increasingly imposing their own requirements as well, in order to better manage underwriting risk.

In short, you need to make sure security doesn’t interfere with the business, or slow it down; but your primary responsibility is to maintain the organization’s security, in a context where the threats keep increasing, regulations keep multiplying, but the budget made available to you remains flat. 

You are expected to maintain “reasonable security”, but how do you define that, let alone achieve it? What’s deemed reasonable can well be in the eye of the beholder, and also changes over time. Technology evolution also requires updating the concept of what’s reasonable; what made sense in 2012 does not necessarily make sense in 2022. Consider something as simple as password length. PCI DSS 3.2.1, a standard released in 2018 and which still governs security requirements at merchants that use credit cards, requires passwords to be 7 characters long. In 2022, it is estimated that such weak passwords can be cracked within 7 seconds. Is this “reasonable?” If a breach happens, how will you answer “how could you let this happen?”

The key to resolving this challenge is to regularly take the time to take stock of the threat landscape, and the security program’s ability to confront it, by means of a formal risk assessment – whether conducted internally or by an external party. While most security teams are often stretched simply keeping up with day-to-day challenges, it is important to take the time to look at the broad picture and ensure security strategy and tactics are still aligned to the threats, regulations, and business requirements at hand. A risk assessment will also help with prioritizing what initiatives will be undertaken and why, and what risks will be deemed acceptable, making the program more defensible when discussing it with other executives, the Board, or regulators. 

While regular risk assessments provide a frame of reference to enable an answer to the “reasonableness” question, it is important to remember that the reality is that all security programs will fail, in one way or another, sooner or later. Cybersecurity is a form of asymmetric warfare where the enemy is typically better equipped and less constrained than the defenders. As a result, two key elements must be prioritized: defense in depth, and incident response. 

If you have received a breach notification from a company you work with, you will undoubtedly have noticed that the breach was always the result of a “sophisticated” attack, possibly leveraging a “zero-day” vulnerability. By definition, a “zero-day” vulnerability is one for which no patch currently exists. As of mid-2022, 18 such vulnerabilities came to light just this year. Given the near-certainty that some attack vectors will succeed, implementing a defense-in-depth strategy will help minimize the damage, in a cybersecurity version of James Reason’s “Swiss cheese model” metaphor in describing failure of complex systems.

While a defense-in-depth strategy can help minimize the damage, damage will almost certainly happen at some point; it is here that a well-developed incident response program matters most. This is really not dissimilar to good crisis management practice in any other discipline; a well-prepared, well-rehearsed plan for managing and communicating about a cybersecurity incident will go a long way towards mitigating damage, including reputational damage. 

The concept of “reasonable security” may well be an elusive beast, given it can be subjective and/or defined differently depending on the entity or circumstances in which the reasonableness question is answered. But a security program structured on the foundation of regular risk assessments, deploying a well-considered strategy of defense in depth, and supported by a properly-rehearsed incident response plan, will be more likely to be perceived as meeting a “reasonableness” standard.


Alain Marcuse is a professor in the Information Security Leadership program at Brandeis University, and the Chief Information Security Officer at Validity Inc.

For more information about the Information Security Leadership program or other online master’s degrees available at GPS, please visit brandeis.edu/gps.

Brandeis GPS Sponsors Events at Boston Fintech Week 2022

Two men smile and shake hands with a screen reading "Brandeis" in the background

Panelist Sasidhar Sista and Professor Ahmad Namini greet one another before the panel “Global Fintech Spotlight.” Photo by Ashley McCabe.

Last week, Brandeis University Graduate Professional Studies sponsored Boston Fintech Week, hosted by Fintech Sandbox. The three-day event centered on panels and keynote speakers exploring the intersection of finance, technology, and various other industries like healthcare, education, banking, and more.

Brandeis GPS hosted two events in partnership with Brandeis International Business School. The first was a panel, Global Fintech Spotlight, moderated by Ahmad Namini, Professor of the Practice of Business Analytics at Brandeis University’s International Business School. Panelists engaged about the current state of the industry and where they see potential for growth. The panelists included:

  • Tal Sharon, Managing Partner at Equitech Ventures and President at FinTech-Aviv, the Israeli FinTech Association
  • Micah Sabovik, Chief Operating Officer and Head of Marketing at MentorWorks Education Capital
  • Sasidhar Sista, Co-Founder of GradRight Inc.
  • Amitabha Sinha, Pentation Analytics
Two men sit in front of an audience having a conversation

Eric Rosengren and Stephen Cecchetti speak to a full audience during their event “A Conversation on Central Bank Digital Currencies.” Photo by Ashley McCabe.

The second sponsored event was A Conversation on Central Bank Digital Currencies, featuring Eric Rosengren, Visiting Professor at the MIT Golub Center for Finance and Policy and the former President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, and Stephen Cecchetti, the Rosen Family Chair in International Finance at Brandeis International Business School. The pair discussed personal and economic benefits of using a digital currency.

Brandeis University hosted a reception to cap off a successful week. The events presented opportunities to make valuable connections with others in the industry, and many fruitful discussions were had. 

For more information on the Digital Innovation for FinTech program or any other GPS programs, visit our website.

The Most Important Skill for Data Professionals Is…

As Chair of the Strategic Analytics Program at Brandeis’ Graduate Professional School, I spend a lot of time thinking about our curriculum. Is it relevant? Is it serving the needs of our students in the highly competitive and rapidly evolving fields of business data analytics and data science? What’s the right mix of case studies, programming, project management, and mathematical skills to help our students succeed? Which sets of software tools and platforms should we adopt? What are the overarching learning outcomes we strive to achieve?

All of these topics also come up regularly in conversations with many different stakeholders: faculty, school administration, curriculum designers, and of course, our students and prospective students. In many of these conversations - especially the ones with students - I’m invariably asked some form of the question “what skills are most important for a successful data analytics career”? Not surprisingly, in my professional life - where I lead analytics teams and am a practicing data scientist - I’m frequently asked the same question, especially by job applicants and professionals just starting their data careers.

Usually the conversations steer towards ranking the technical skills that data pros are known for - writing dazzling computer code in any or all popular languages, producing deep statistical analysis, creating compelling visualizations and dashboards, adroitly wrangling even the messiest data, and building cutting-edge machine learning models.

To be sure, all of these competencies are important. Most successful data professionals are highly skilled in at least one of these areas. And if you’ve a savant in one of these specialties, it’s rocket fuel for your career.

So which one matters the most? What’s the secret data sauce? The short answer is: none of the above.

Before I explain in greater detail, let’s take a detour.

What’s the difference between a good cook and a great chef? Both have a passion for cooking, both understand enough of the science and chemistry behind cooking to avoid kitchen disasters, and both have solid technical kitchen skills. A good cook opens a refrigerator, sees ingredients, follows a recipe, and can competently assemble those ingredients into a pleasing dish. A great chef will open that same refrigerator, see those same ingredients, and understand the sublime culinary possibilities in even the simplest set of ingredients. A great chef understands flavors and how ingredients connect with one another to bring their vision of an incredible dish to life.

So what does this have to do with data analytics? A good data analyst is competent with key technical tools, can query, transform, and explore data, identify an appropriate statistical or machine learning model, and –with a bit of care - assemble all of these “raw ingredients” into an analytical solution that will probably meet their stakeholders’ expectations.

But a great data analyst/data scientist - like a great chef - sees a business problem and can harness their experience to develop a deep intuition around how to recognize, formulate, and execute on analytical solutions. They routinely connect the dots between the fundamental characteristics, nuances, behaviors, and economics of their domain. They understand how to create effective analytical strategies for solving these problems using the models and methods of modern data analytics.

The technical tools and software skills are a means to an end, not the end itself. The best analytics professionals are the ones that see this bigger picture and can repeatedly demonstrate a deep understanding of how to identify and cultivate business value using the ever-improving portfolio of data analytics tools.

As your career progresses, this “softer” skill will become increasingly important. You will probably find yourself transitioning from the purely technical mindset that most of us - including me - start our careers with to a more creative or strategic mindset. This is true, even in a field like analytics, which is deeply tethered to mathematics and computer science.

The hardest and most rewarding business challenges for data professionals rely on your ability to intuitively recognize valuable business problems that can be addressed by analytical and data-driven solutions. The “what” is almost always more important than the “how”.

Written by: Mark Coleman, MA, Program Chair of Strategic Analytics 

For more information on the Strategic Analytics MS or other online master’s degrees available at GPS, please visit brandeis.edu/gps.

Communication for Effective Leadership

It may go without saying, but communication is a prevalent and critical component of today’s workforce. The skillset is especially essential for professionals seeking to excel in a leadership role. Regardless of industry, professional communications is imperative for leading effective meetings, mitigating crises, and navigating negotiations and conflict resolution.

“Communications is a critical part of doing business, especially in today’s environment. News travels fast. A bad customer experience can become a social media sensation before the CEO is even informed of the problem,” said Mary Caraccioli, Chief Communications Officer for The Central Park Conservancy. “On the flip side, you can use the power of social media to engage directly (and more deeply) with customers, employees and other stakeholders. You can use the power of the communications revolution to your advantage by making communications part of your business strategy.”

Mary Caraccioli HeadshotCaraccioli is teaching a master’s-level course in Communication for Effective Leadership, a fully online, 10-week class that will help students build on their critical thinking skills and apply oral and written communication strategies to solve organizational problems and drive organizational change. Throughout the course, students will focus on topics such as negotiation and facilitation, crisis communications and public relations, virtual and global communications, and stakeholder management.

By the end of Communication for Effective Leadership, students should be able to:

  • Develop, execute and measure communication plans to manage stakeholders, solve organizational problems and drive organizational change.
  • Adapt communication strategies and use digital technologies to align with organizational, cultural, virtual, and global needs.
  • Build a portfolio of communication campaigns including crisis response, company positioning, and media statements.

This course is available for professional development or as part of several GPS graduate programs. To learn more, submit your information or contact the  GPS office for more information or to request a syllabus: 781-736-8787 or gps@brandeis.edu.

Why a micro-course on open source communities can strengthen your collaborative skills

Technology and collaboration have gone hand-in-hand in breaking down the barriers of isolation brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Professionals in all industries are utilizing innovative technology as a way to collaborate remotely. In fact, organizations have started leveraging open source software to foster innovation and efficiencies. Employers need talent well-versed in the dedicated policies and programs required to ensure that the investments in open source projects produce the desired benefits while still aligning with the values of the open source communities.

Cultivate an Open Source Community, a micro-course offered by Brandeis University and the Open Source Initiative, starts June 1, 2020. Registration is currently open. Through this four-week survey course, you will explore the array of active open source communities to distill patterns and best practices. You’ll discover the reasons that people join communities; compare how collaboration tools influence how communities achieve their goals; and, define management and governance structures for communities. Coursework prepares you to identify and join projects that you’re interested in, select projects for your company, and improve projects that you rely on as either an individual or a company.

What can you expect to do on a weekly basis?

  • Work with a small team on a project to identify patterns and best practices in open source communities.
  • Attend a live virtual hour-long interactive lecture with the instructor.
  • Watch interviews with open source experts and leaders recorded specifically for this course.
  • Use open source collaboration tools to talk with other course participants and build your network.
  • Receive guidance and feedback from the expert course instructor on your team project and on open source communities

About the Instructor

Georg Link, PhD is an Open Source Strategist. He co-founded the Linux Foundation CHAOSS Project to advance analytics and metrics for open source project health. Georg has 15 years of experience as an active contributor to several open source projects and has presented on open source topics at 20+ conferences. As the Director of Sales at Bitergia, Georg helps organizations and communities with adopting CHAOSS metrics and technology.

Brandeis University and the Open Source Initiative offer other micro-courses, digital badges, and a certificate program in Open Source Technology Management. If you have any questions about registering for the Cultivate an Open Source Community, contact Christie Barone at cbarone@brandeis.edu.

Bioinformatics and COVID-19 therapeutics

By Alan Cheng

Unprecedented. It describes the current pandemic and its terrible human and economic impact. It also describes the speed and pace of scientific work unraveling the novel virus and enabling drug discovery efforts. That speed and pace is driven in no small part by recent bioinformatics advances.

The first global alert of a novel virus causing severe cases of pneumonia came in late December 2019. Just a couple weeks later, the first genome sequence of this novel virus was completed, enabling scientists to use bioinformatics to identify the novel virus as a beta-coronavirus, and a relative of the SARS and MERS viruses. A phylogenetic analysis found the novel virus most closely resembles the SARS-CoV coronavirus, leading to the official naming of the virus as SARS-CoV-2.

Naming the virus is one thing. Using bioinformatics approaches again, the proteins produced by the virus were identified, and subsequently made and characterized using experimental molecular biology techniques. The close homology of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins to those from SARS-CoV enabled us to transfer the learnings about SARS over the last 15+ years to help us understand SARS-CoV-2 and accelerate vaccine and drug discovery efforts around the world. Homology modeling allows us to rapidly build approximate 3D structures of the proteins and help suggest existing experimental drugs that were quickly put into clinical trials for combatting SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and replication. Experimental molecular biology and protein structure work, while more time and resource-intensive, has led to more accurate atomic resolution 3D structures of key SARS-Cov-2 proteins, including the spike protein, RNA polymerase, and main protease. This molecular understanding allows scientists at biopharmaceutical and academic institutions to efficiently begin to identify molecules that are not only efficacious in stopping viral expansion but also selective enough to be safe while not being too selective that viruses can easily mutate away from drug binding. All of this happened within two months of the genome sequence, with many efforts, especially in drug discovery, ongoing.

There is still a lot unknown about medical aspects of the disease itself, and how SARS-CoV2 interacts with and affects human host biology. Using proteomics approaches, scientists are identifying human host interactions with the viral proteins. Using genomics and statistical genetics approaches, scientists are analyzing how each of our unique genetic compositions and health situations affects disease progression, which will impact how we can most effectively treat patients. Longer term, the unprecedented speed enabled in no small part by bioinformatics will be important in preventing and treating future epidemics as well.

Developing your bioinformatics skillsets. The importance of bioinformatics in improving human health is growing. For current and prospective Brandeis students, here is how your coursework relates to the approaches being discussed.

  • Foundational bioinformatics analysis
    RBIF 101: Bioinformatics Scripting and Databases with Python
    RBIF 111: Biomedical Statistics with R
  • Genomics analysis of viruses and host response
    RBIF 109: Biological Sequence Analysis
  • Protein homology modeling and structural bioinformatics
    RBIF 101: Structural Bioinformatics
  • Understanding disease biology
    RBIF 102: Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Disease
  • Proteomics and expression profiling
    RBIF 114: Molecular Profiling and Biomarker Discovery
    RBIF 112: Mathematical Modeling for Bioinformatics
  • How individual human genetics affects disease progression
    RBIF 108: Computational Systems Biology
    RBIF 115: Statistical Genetics
    RBIF 290: Special Topics: Functional Genomics
  • Drug discovery for treatments
    RBIF 106: Drug Discovery and Development
    RBIF 110: Cheminformatics

Bioinformatics resources

Dr. Alan Cheng is chair of the MS in Bioinformatics program at Brandeis Graduate Professional Studies. In his day job, Alan is a Director at Merck & Co., where he leads a group applying computational and structure-based approaches towards discovery of new therapeutics. He received a PhD from the University of California, San Francisco, and undergraduate degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. All opinions presented here are his own.

Brandeis Graduate Professional Studies is committed to creating programs and courses that keep today’s professionals at the forefront of their industries. To learn more about the MS in Bioinformatics, visit www.brandeis.edu/gps.

An open source education program that suits your availability and learning style

Brandeis University and the Open Source Initiative® (OSI) announced at OSCON 2019 that they would be partnering to provide new educational offerings for the open source community. The OSI-Brandeis partnership aims to help address the growing demand for expertise within organizations seeking to authentically collaborate with, and productively manage, open source resources.

Now, more than ever, OSI and Brandeis University understand that providing options that align with individuals’ lifestyle and learning style ensures a positive learning experience. The fully-online Open Source Technology Management program that was initially launched in January has been redesigned to empower professionals in the open source community to pursue a valuable and needs-specific professional development opportunity. In fact, there are no prerequisites for the program.

The first micro-course of the program begins on June 1, 2020. Students have the choice to select one of four learning options. Participation in the program provides the opportunity to obtain open source skills that will set open source professionals apart from their colleagues, collaborate with fellow open source community members, and have access to quality coursework that is endorsed by OSI.

Option 1
Take a single 4-week micro-course. The upcoming course that will be offered is Cultivate an Open Course Community. Other courses in the program include:

  • Integrate the Open Source Community (launches July 6, 2020)
  • Open Source Business Practices
  • Establish an Open Source Program Office
  • Open Source Workflow and Infrastructure
  • Production of Distributed Open Source Software

Option 2
Complete two micro-courses in a given topic area, and earn a digital badge in one of these three areas: The Business of Open Source, Open Source Community Development, or Open Source Development Fundamentals.

Option 3
Complete all six micro-courses, and receive a certificate in Open Source Technology Management.

Option 4
Complete a capstone assignment at the conclusion of two micro-courses, and earn 3 graduate-level credits.

True to open source software process and principles, the educational offerings coming out of the partnership are crowd-sourced and jointly developed by an advisory board comprised of university curriculum development experts and senior open source advocates from Amazon, Red Hat, Bloomberg, Twitter and other leading companies.

Sign up to receive more information about the program. Specific questions can be emailed to Kathryn Wight, Director of Partnership Engagement.

Sins of our past modeling our future – Diversity and bias in AI and data

By Deniz A Johnson

With International Women’s Day approaching, I was recently interviewed regarding the gender gap in Fintech and Financial Services. This is a hot topic with a variety of efforts underway to address it.  To name a few:

  • A recent California law (SB826) mandated diversity in the boardroom.
  • Goldman Sachs CEO David Solomon announced that the investment bank will no longer take a company public unless said company has at least one “diverse” board member.

These are just the most recent examples of current shifts in the industry.

Perhaps the most compelling reason to increase diversity is that it pays! A 2020 KPMG study concluded that “boards that include more women and directors with diverse backgrounds and experiences are more effective on a variety of measures, including financial performance, risk oversight and sustainability.”

While these are steps in the right direction, I believe that diversity in financial data sets is a much larger issue. Without resolving the bias in AI and its data, we cannot make diversity in financial services a sustainable reality.

Every day, we generate data trails as part of our lives as we engage in financial transactions large and small; post on social media; or even just log into a website or app. This data is and will be available for building and refining our Machine Learning (ML) and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies.

As these new technologies are adopted to guide business decisions, including creation of new investment products and services, the diversity challenges have a potential to create significant limitations:

  • When data sets represent only a small percentage of the actual population’s activities, preferences and needs
  • When past decisions contain identifiable or hidden prejudice/ bias
  • When past business decisions omit segments of the population

If we do not openly address these problems, we will carry narrow customer insights and potential biases to future products and services, thus missing the opportunities to add greater value to more clients. This could mean; a minority group that has traditionally avoided loan applications can be automatically rejected in the future since the data set is incomplete.

Let’s begin to address this problem by first using ML/AI to identify bias, bad data, and data gaps. Further, let’s leverage community and educational programs to increase workforce diversity and encourage firms to create inclusive work environments – both will make diversity a reality rather a goal – and enable broader thinking about client segments and their diverse needs and preferences.

Diversity and inclusion are not just feel-good concepts, but investments in the future. Both are necessities for creating better data sets for the new technologies that will help us build the financial solutions of the future and our industry’s success.

Taking a mindful and intentional look into identifying and solving bias in data as well as models is the key to making diverse organizations.

Deniz Johnson is a FinTech thought leader, advisor and executive in the Boston area. You can find her on LinkedIn here.

Brandeis Graduate Professional Studies is committed to creating programs and courses that keep today’s professionals at the forefront of their industries. To learn more, visit www.brandeis.edu/gps.

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