Pump without pumps

By Kun-Ta Wu, Ph.D.

Pumping water through a pipe solves the need to provide water in every house. By turning on faucets, we retrieve water at home without needing to carry it from a reservoir with buckets. However, driving water through a pipe requires external pressure; such pressure increases linearly with pipe length. Longer pipes need to be more rigid for sustaining proportionally-increased pressure, preventing pipes from exploding. Hence, transporting fluids through pipes has been a challenging problem for physics as well as engineering communities.

To overcome such a problem, Postdoctoral Associate Kun-Ta Wu and colleagues from the Dogic and Fraden labs, and Brandeis MRSEC doped water with 0.1% v/v active matter. The active matter mainly consisted of kinesin-driven microtubules. These microtubules were extracted from cow brain tissues. In cells, microtubules play an important role in cell activity, such as cell division and nutrient transport. The activity originates from kinesin molecular motors walking along microtubules. In cargo transport, microtubules are like rail tracks; kinesin motors are like trains. When these tracks and trains are doped in water, their motion drives surrounding fluids, generating vortices. The vortices only circulate locally; there is no global net flow.

Wu-Pump without Pumps

Figure: Increasing the height of the annulus induces a transition from locally turbulent to globally coherent flows of a confined active isotropic fluid. The left and right half-plane of each annulus illustrate the instantaneous and time-averaged flow and vorticity map of the self-organized flows. The transition to coherent flows is an intrinsically 3D phenomenon that is controlled by the aspect ratio of the channel cross section and vanishes for channels that are either too shallow or too thin. Adapted from Wu et al. Science 355, eaal1979 (2017).

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Physics Graduate Student Receives Kavli Fellowship

Cesar Agon at Kavli Institute Cesar Agon, a graduate student in the High-Energy and Gravitational Theory group, was awarded a prestigious Graduate Fellowship at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) at the University of California, Santa Barbara. KITP is one of the world’s leading centers for research in all areas of theoretical physics. In addition to having its own faculty and postdocs, it hosts visiting faculty from around the world and holds conferences and semester-long programs on topics of current interest. The Graduate Fellowship program allows exceptional students to benefit from this activity and the scientific ambience of KITP by spending a semester there. This is a very competitive program, with only about half a dozen students coming from around the world each semester. Agon, who is advised by Profs. Matthew Headrick, Albion Lawrence, and Howard Schnitzer, is currently spending the spring term at KITP, before heading off to Stony Brook University as a postdoc in the fall.

Back in the summer of 2015, Agon had the opportunity to visit KITP during two important programs on the physics frontiers, both of special interest to him, namely ”Entanglement in Strongly-Correlated Quantum Matter” and ”Quantum Gravity Foundations: UV to IR”. That was a great opportunity to meet in person the leaders of the field from around the world in the relaxed and friendly atmosphere of the KITP. Discussions among the researchers and students were tremendously common all around the institute and there were many activities that facilitated such discussions such as daily coffees, lunches, and dinners.

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Two Brandeis Professors Receive 2017 Simons Fellowships

Bit threads in a holographic spacetime

Bit threads in a holographic spacetime

Two Brandeis professors have been awarded highly prestigious and competitive Simons Fellowships for 2017. Daniel Ruberman received a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Mathematics. Matthew Headrick was awarded a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Theoretical Physics. This is the first of two articles where each recipient’s award-winning research is described.

Matthew Headrick’s research studies the phenomenon of entanglement in certain quantum systems and its connection to the geometry of spacetime in general relativity. This very active area of research is the culmination of three developments in theoretical physics over the past 20 years.

First, in 1997, string theorists discovered that certain quantum systems involving a large number of very strongly interacting constituents — whose analysis would normally be intractable — are secretly equivalent to general relativity — a classical theory describing gravity in terms of curved spacetime — in a space with an extra dimension. For example, if the quantum system has two dimensions of space, then the general relativity has three; the phenomenon is thus naturally dubbed “holography”.

This equivalence between two very different-looking theories is incredibly powerful, and has led to much progress in understanding both strongly-interacting quantum systems and general relativity. However, it is still not fully understood how or precisely under what conditions such an equivalence holds.

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Amy Lee Named 2017 Searle Scholar

Figure from Amy Lee

Assistant Professor of Biology Amy Si-Ying Lee was named a 2017 Searle Scholar, receiving $300,000 in flexible funding to support her work over the next three years. Lee’s research is focused on discovering how gene regulation occurs through novel mechanisms of mRNA translation. Specifically, her lab studies how non-canonical translation pathways shape cell growth and differentiation, and why defects in mRNA translation lead to developmental disorders and cancer.

Lee, who came to Brandeis in Summer 2016, has a PhD form Harvard and did her postdoc at UC Berkeley. She has also been awarded a 2017 Sloan Research Fellowship and in January won the Charles H. Hood Foundation Child Health Research Award. Lee’s lab is up and running and recruiting postdocs and PhD students (through the Molecular & Cell Biology and Biochemistry & Biophysics graduate programs). In Fall 2017, Lee will teach BIOL 105, Molecular Biology.

Rosenstiel Award lectures on Mar 22 to honor Susan Lindquist

James Haber, Director of the Rosenstiel Center, writes:

The 46th annual Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Basic Medical Research was awarded last October to Susan Lindquist (MIT), one of the most inventive and influential life scientists of our generation.  Sue tragically passed away a few weeks thereafter; in her honor we have arranged a symposium to celebrate her lab’s great legacy.  The Award talks will be held in next Wednesday, March 22, in Gerstenzang 123 from 3:30 PM to 5:30 PM, followed by a reception open to all in the Shapiro Science Center atrium.  We hope you will all come to honor Sue Lindquist and to be edified by the excellent work carried out by her former colleagues.

Angelika Amon  (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
“The Remarkable Scientific Life of Susan Lindquist”

Leah Cowen (University of Toronto)
“Harnessing Evolution to Thwart Microbial Drug Resistance and Treat Infectious Disease”

Daniel Jarosz (Stanford University)
“Remembering the Past: A New Form of Protein-Based Inheritance”

Sandro Santagata (Brigham and Women’s Hospital)
“Heat Shock Factor (HSF1): A Powerful Driver of Malignancy”

Susan Lindquist

 

From PhD to Life

By Craig W. Stropkay, (PhD ’13, Molecular and Cell Biology, Ren lab)

Reach for the stars, they said. You should definitely go get your PhD, you’d be great for it, they said. Well, I guess they did have a point. Pursuing my doctorate degree in Molecular Biology at Brandeis was definitely one of the most challenging things that I have ever had to do in my life. I could spend hours telling you about the long hours I spent trying to construct my dissertation or the countless nights that I had to wake up and drive into the lab from Medford just to “feed” my cells — but that’s not the point of this article. I want to talk about something that I wish was more openly discussed when I first started my journey towards pursuing a PhD. Something that I believe is important to anyone who is currently working their way towards earning their doctoral degree: a job.

Now I know what you may be thinking: why would I need to worry about a job when I know I will continue onto a postdoc and then a tenure-track academic post? Isn’t that what everyone does? That is precisely my point. Don’t get me wrong: there is absolutely nothing wrong with continuing a career in academia upon completion of your doctorate. It takes a lot of patience, skill, and dedication to remain in the field after you have literally spent years becoming an expert in everything dealing with Life Science. Maybe you’ve considered going that route, feeling that your choices are limited. Many people believe that apart from academia, their only “alternative” option is to go into industry and work in biotech or pharma.

Image from Naturejobs article

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