Two Brandeis Professors Receive 2017 Simons Fellowships, part II

Spectral Flow

Spectral Flow (full caption below)

Two Brandeis professors have been awarded highly prestigious and competitive Simons Fellowships for 2017. Daniel Ruberman received a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Mathematics. Matthew Headrick was awarded a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Theoretical Physics. This is the second of two articles where each recipient describes their award-winning research.

Daniel Ruberman’s research asks “What is the large-scale structure of our world?” Einstein’s unification of physical space and time tells us that the universe is fundamentally 4-dimensional. Paradoxically, the large-scale structure, or topology, of 4-dimensional spaces, is much less understood than the topology in other dimensions. Surfaces (2-dimensional spaces) are completely classified, and the study of 3-dimensional spaces is largely dominated by geometry. In contrast, problems about spaces of dimension greater than 4 are translated, using the technique called surgery theory, into the abstract questions of algebra.

Ruberman will work on several projects studying the large-scale topology of 4-dimensional spaces. His work combines geometric techniques with the study of partial differential equations arising in physics. One major project, with Nikolai Saveliev (Miami) is to test a prediction of the high-dimensional surgery theory, that there should be `exotic’ manifolds that resemble a product of a circle and a 3-dimensional sphere. The proposed method, which would show that this prediction is incorrect, is to compare numerical invariants derived from the solutions to the Yang-Mills and Seiberg-Witten equations, by embedding both in a more complicated master equation. The study of the Seiberg-Witten invariants is complicated by their instability with respect to varying geometric parameters in the theory. A key step in their analysis is the introduction of the notion of end-periodic spectral flow, which compensates for that instability, as illustrated below.

Other projects for the year will apply techniques from 4-dimensional topology to classical problems of combinatorics and geometry about configurations of lines in projective space. In recent years, combinatorial methods have been used to decide if a specified incidence relation between certain objects (“lines”) and other objects (“points”) can be realized by actual points and lines in a projective plane. For the real and complex fields, one can weaken the condition to look for topologically embedded lines (circles in the real case, spheres in the complex case) that meet according to a specified incidence relation. Ruberman’s work with Laura Starkston (Stanford) gives new topological restrictions on the realization of configurations of spheres in the complex projective plane.

Caption: Solutions to the Seiberg-Witten equations of quantum field theory provide topological information about 4-dimensional spaces. However, the set of solutions, or moduli space, can undergo a phase transition as a parameter T is varied, making those solutions hard to count. This figure illustrates a key calculation: the phase transition is equal to the end-periodic spectral flow, a new concept introduced in work of Mrowka-Ruberman-Saveliev. In the figure, the spectral set, illustrated by the red curves, evolves with the parameter T. Every time the spectral set crosses the cylinder, the moduli space changes, gaining or losing points according to the direction of the crossing.

Physics Graduate Student Receives Kavli Fellowship

Cesar Agon at Kavli Institute Cesar Agon, a graduate student in the High-Energy and Gravitational Theory group, was awarded a prestigious Graduate Fellowship at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) at the University of California, Santa Barbara. KITP is one of the world’s leading centers for research in all areas of theoretical physics. In addition to having its own faculty and postdocs, it hosts visiting faculty from around the world and holds conferences and semester-long programs on topics of current interest. The Graduate Fellowship program allows exceptional students to benefit from this activity and the scientific ambience of KITP by spending a semester there. This is a very competitive program, with only about half a dozen students coming from around the world each semester. Agon, who is advised by Profs. Matthew Headrick, Albion Lawrence, and Howard Schnitzer, is currently spending the spring term at KITP, before heading off to Stony Brook University as a postdoc in the fall.

Back in the summer of 2015, Agon had the opportunity to visit KITP during two important programs on the physics frontiers, both of special interest to him, namely ”Entanglement in Strongly-Correlated Quantum Matter” and ”Quantum Gravity Foundations: UV to IR”. That was a great opportunity to meet in person the leaders of the field from around the world in the relaxed and friendly atmosphere of the KITP. Discussions among the researchers and students were tremendously common all around the institute and there were many activities that facilitated such discussions such as daily coffees, lunches, and dinners.

[Read more…]

Two Brandeis Professors Receive 2017 Simons Fellowships

Bit threads in a holographic spacetime

Bit threads in a holographic spacetime

Two Brandeis professors have been awarded highly prestigious and competitive Simons Fellowships for 2017. Daniel Ruberman received a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Mathematics. Matthew Headrick was awarded a 2017 Simons Fellowship in Theoretical Physics. This is the first of two articles where each recipient’s award-winning research is described.

Matthew Headrick’s research studies the phenomenon of entanglement in certain quantum systems and its connection to the geometry of spacetime in general relativity. This very active area of research is the culmination of three developments in theoretical physics over the past 20 years.

First, in 1997, string theorists discovered that certain quantum systems involving a large number of very strongly interacting constituents — whose analysis would normally be intractable — are secretly equivalent to general relativity — a classical theory describing gravity in terms of curved spacetime — in a space with an extra dimension. For example, if the quantum system has two dimensions of space, then the general relativity has three; the phenomenon is thus naturally dubbed “holography”.

This equivalence between two very different-looking theories is incredibly powerful, and has led to much progress in understanding both strongly-interacting quantum systems and general relativity. However, it is still not fully understood how or precisely under what conditions such an equivalence holds.

[Read more…]

Amy Lee Named 2017 Searle Scholar

Figure from Amy Lee

Assistant Professor of Biology Amy Si-Ying Lee was named a 2017 Searle Scholar, receiving $300,000 in flexible funding to support her work over the next three years. Lee’s research is focused on discovering how gene regulation occurs through novel mechanisms of mRNA translation. Specifically, her lab studies how non-canonical translation pathways shape cell growth and differentiation, and why defects in mRNA translation lead to developmental disorders and cancer.

Lee, who came to Brandeis in Summer 2016, has a PhD form Harvard and did her postdoc at UC Berkeley. She has also been awarded a 2017 Sloan Research Fellowship and in January won the Charles H. Hood Foundation Child Health Research Award. Lee’s lab is up and running and recruiting postdocs and PhD students (through the Molecular & Cell Biology and Biochemistry & Biophysics graduate programs). In Fall 2017, Lee will teach BIOL 105, Molecular Biology.

Rosenstiel Award lectures on Mar 22 to honor Susan Lindquist

James Haber, Director of the Rosenstiel Center, writes:

The 46th annual Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Basic Medical Research was awarded last October to Susan Lindquist (MIT), one of the most inventive and influential life scientists of our generation.  Sue tragically passed away a few weeks thereafter; in her honor we have arranged a symposium to celebrate her lab’s great legacy.  The Award talks will be held in next Wednesday, March 22, in Gerstenzang 123 from 3:30 PM to 5:30 PM, followed by a reception open to all in the Shapiro Science Center atrium.  We hope you will all come to honor Sue Lindquist and to be edified by the excellent work carried out by her former colleagues.

Angelika Amon  (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
“The Remarkable Scientific Life of Susan Lindquist”

Leah Cowen (University of Toronto)
“Harnessing Evolution to Thwart Microbial Drug Resistance and Treat Infectious Disease”

Daniel Jarosz (Stanford University)
“Remembering the Past: A New Form of Protein-Based Inheritance”

Sandro Santagata (Brigham and Women’s Hospital)
“Heat Shock Factor (HSF1): A Powerful Driver of Malignancy”

Susan Lindquist


8th Annual Pepose Award Lecture moved to Monday, March 13

Professor Frank Werblin, Professor Emeritus of Neuroscience at the University of California, Berkeley will receive the eighth annual Jay Pepose ’75 Award in Vision Sciences from Brandeis University on Monday, March 13 (date change due to impending snowstorm). The event will be held at 4 PM (room to be announced). At that time, Werblin will deliver a public lecture titled, “The Evolution of Retinal Science over the Last 50 Years.”

During his research, Professor Werblin identified a number of cellular correlates underlying visual information processing in the retina. He has authored many articles in peer-reviewed journals, and has contributed articles on retinal circuitry to the Handbook of Brain Microcircuits (Oxford University Press) and retinal processing in the Encyclopedia of the Eye (Elsevier). Werblin founded Visionize in 2013, a company dedicated to helping patients suffering from vision diseases that cannot be corrected with glasses or surgery.

The Pepose Award is funded by a $1 million endowment established in 2009 through a gift from Jay Pepose ’75, MA’75, P’08, P’17, and Susan K. Feigenbaum ’74, P’08, P’17, his wife. Pepose is the founder and medical director of the Pepose Vision Institute in St. Louis and a professor of clinical ophthalmology at Washington University. He founded and serves as board president of the Lifelong Vision Foundation, whose mission is to preserve lifelong vision for people in the St. Louis community, nationally and internationally through research, community programs and education programs. While a student at Brandeis, he worked closely with John Lisman, the Zalman Abraham Kekst Chair in Neuroscience and professor of biology at Brandeis.

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